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Columnista invitado: Jesús Zavala
Dentro del sector cultural el libro siempre se ha visto sujeto a los cambios tecnológicos, desde la aparición de la imprenta para su masificación así como los adelantos técnicos. Ahora que es posible comprar un libro haciendo un clic sobre un botón, llegamos a perder las perspectivas de la producción y difusión de un libro.
En el contexto latinoamericano encontramos ciertos aspectos comunes en cuanto a la producción y difusión de libros hechos por autores y editores jóvenes. Ante la falta de espacios en el mercado y la necesidad de saltar a la palestra, en algunos casos se comienza con revistas o colectivos donde se publican textos propios así como colaboraciones externas. En otros casos se nace como una editorial, un negocio con pretensiones comerciales, de posicionamiento y de difusión cultural. En este último caso estas editoriales se convierten en actores culturales con una dinámica diferente a la de las grandes casas editoras.
En el caso de Perú, lo mencionado líneas arriba es una realidad constante dentro del sector. Tanto la aparición de revistas como de noveles editoriales en los últimos años ha propiciado que el sector del libro y la promoción cultural cobre una nueva dinámica. Y si a esto sumamos el hito del premio Nobel de Mario Vargas Llosa, el año del centenario de José María Arguedas y demás celebraciones hasta hoy, la perspectiva a futuro es prometedora. Pero no hay que olvidar ciertos aspectos de gran importancia en el ámbito social y cultural.
La presencia del analfabetismo funcional es un grave problema. El que solo 2 de cada 10 niños entienda lo que lea es preocupante (según inform PISA). Además de la situación del multilingüismo dentro del país, donde la imposición del castellano produce en los niños conflictos que más adelante en su desarrollo serán patentes. La lucha contra la piratería por diversos medios y que muchas veces no se logren cosas concretas. La falta de crear y mantener un mercado activo para las publicaciones, desembocando en que los mismos productores sean los que consumen su propio producto.
Estos aspectos que pueden ser contradictorios pero que sólo nos muestran las múltiples aristas de la situación. Una situación que solo puede cambiar mediante el diálogo entre los diversos actores del sector, tanto públicos y privados. Sino corremos el riesgo de seguir haciendo clic sin saber de dónde vienen los libros.
*Jesús Zavala, literato de la Universidad de San Marcos (Lima) y estudiante del diplomado en Gestión Cultural del Museo de Arte Lima (MALI).
The Cuban economic crisis in the 1990s led to a massive wave of migration mainly to the U.S. and Europe, which included many artists from the Cuban Alternative Music Scene. Living and working abroad, these artists are creating a transnational network of self-produced professional productions and collaborations throughout different countries, with other artists from the Cuban diaspora, and from the Island as well. These musicians engage in critical discourses about local and global challenges. They challenge monolithic views about the Cuban diasporic experience.
Here is a link to an article published in Cubaencuentro- an online magazine about the Cuban diaspora based in Madrid- which intends to map the experience of some Cuban migrants in the underground local music scene in Miami. Below you can find a video from this band.
The Cuban Alternative Music Scene groups a diversity of musicians that since the late 1980s furthered the cosmopolitan character of Cuban music through constant fusion and experimentation with world sonorities. Some of them were song-writers, former members of the “Novisima Trova” movement. Others received a high quality 15 year average training in classical music and art studies at the National System of Schools of Arts and Music in the Island. In general they are highly influenced by jazz music (ranging from traditional to more experimental and electronic jazz). They are also strongly informed by Brazilian harmonies and rhythms, Reggae, Argentinean and Anglo rock, funk and pop music. They have combined all these influences with the way of making songs and music from Cuban artistic movements like Feeling, La “Nueva and Novísima Trova” and previous Cuban jazz musicians like Emiliano Salvador, Bobby Carcassés and Gonzalo Rubalcaba. In some cases they also incorporate rhythms and harmonies from genres like timba, Afro-Cuban, hip-hop and have made occasional contemporary versions of emblematic jazz standards and traditional Cuban songs and genres.
October is a synonym of celebration for many Peruvians in South Florida. The Señor de los Milagros festivity is probably one of the largest Catholic religious celebrations in the world. This tradition dates back to the 17th century in Lima by an African slave who painted an image of Jesus Christ on a wall. The devotion to this image became popular after an earthquake impacted the capital of Peru and destroyed everything but the mural. Since then, every October there are many celebratory processions that include music and special foods.
Peruvians around the world gather for this festivity. The organizers of the festivities are members of the Hermandad del Señor de los Milagros, a men’s fraternity that it's identified with purple habits and who practice devotion to the traditional image. The Hermandad headquarters are located in Lima but in South Florida there are five affiliated fraternities, therefore at least five celebrations occur during the month of October, most of them by the Peruvian neighborhood of Kendall.
Many Peruvians find the Señor de los Milagros as a symbol of identity, and also as a way to share their heritage with the rest of the community. Similar celebrations occur in New York City, Patterson (NJ), Los Angeles and the DC area.
So if you haven’t try Turrón de doña Pepa or Picarones yet, this is probably the best time to join a traditional Peruvian festivity.
[photo] Señor de los Milagros procession in Kendall, Miami
Señor de los Milagros Festivity in South Florida
(Mass, procession, food fair and music)
- October 15
San Isidro Parish, Starts at 7pm
2310 Martin Luther King. Pompano Beach, FL 33069
- October 16th
Good Shepherd Parish, Starts at Noon
14187 SW 72nd St Miami, FL 33183
- October 23rd
Our Lady of Lourdes Parish, Starts at 1pm
11291 SW 142nd. Ave, Miami FL 33186
- October 30th
Corpus Christi Parish, Starts at 1pm
730 NW 34 St, Miami 33127
The Oscars have long established the best picture, best director, best supporting actress. Recently, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has decided on Puerto Rico's status as well.
Long included in the Best Foreign Picture category, a new decision categorizes films produced on the island as squarely within the USA. Here's a link to a news story from the Puerto Rican press sent to me by Sonia Fritz, whose film América had been selected by the local Puerto Rican committee to represent the island in the competition for the Foreign Language Film.
"I've discovered that I'm a buffoon," Octavio Campos told me on Thursday morning during a four-hour debrief after his return from a 2-month residency in Australia. Not that he felt like a fool for going Down Under. Quite the contrary: his performances at the Melbourne Fringe Festival confirmed his twin commitments to 1) Miami and 2) cabaret.
I've been thinking about Miami as a cabaret town for a while now. Since the deadline for next summer's performance studies international conference is coming up, I thought maybe that idea might fit into the conference theme of performance and the culture industry. Adorno is not a cabaret kind of guy, so I turned to Benjamin and came up with Ernest Bloch's review of Benjamin's One-Way Street, called "Philosophy as Cabaret."
Here's Bloch: Cabaret may be employed as one of the most open and – contrary to its own intentions—most honest forms of the present: it then becomes the mirror of that empty space in which nothing can be made whole without a lie and where only fragments can still meet and intermingle.
Octavio told me that he told his audience in Melbourne that they were going to have a salsa party to some Cuban music -- and the Australians nodded earnestly. Then he played Olga Tañon's "Mentiroso" (Liar).
I almost fell off my chair laughing. Of course, there's no reason why the Australians would know that Olga is Puerto Rican or that the song is a merengue, or that merengue is Dominican.
Then when Octavio had them all dancing happily, he cut out the lights and plunged them into blackness, theater of cruelty-style. With a sinister voice, he announced: "I lied. I told you I was going to tell you the true story of the Bay of Pigs, but I'm not going to tell you the true story."
What else could he do, hailing from this empty space where only lies can make us whole?